Evidence from the Heavens
The laws of science are the foundation of all scientific endeavor. They have been demonstrated to be reliable, regardless of time or place. These laws enable researchers to make accurate predictions from a given set of conditions. They demonstrate an overwhelming presence of order and design in the universe. Almost every scientific law can be expressed by means of a mathematical formula. Many are named after the scientist responsible for their discovery. Examples of these laws are listed below.
Newton’s Laws of Motion (three laws for all motion)
Universal Gravitation (two bodies attracting each other)
Boyle’s Law (gas pressure and volume relationship)
Charles’ Law (gas temperature and volume relationships)
Ideal Gas Law (gas temperature, volume, and pressure)
Coulomb’s Law (charges, distances between two objects)
Hooke’s Law (spring action and force)
Kepler’s Law (laws of planetary orbits)
Snell’s Law (refraction law of light)
Ohm’s Law (electrical law of volts, amps, and resistance)
Laws of Thermodynamics (universal laws of energy and matter)
Laws suggest a lawgiver—a designer or creator of the universe. Sir Isaac Newton, the greatest scientist who ever lived, was a creationist who thought of God as the divine watchmaker. Like a fine mechanical watch, each component of creation is designed to work in harmony with every other part. This pattern of intricate coordination in the cosmos points to a creator, one who designed the universe. Newton, when developing the Law of Universal Gravitation, observed the movements of the planets around the sun, and concluded:
This most beautiful system of sun, planets, and comets could only proceed from the counsel and dominion of an intelligent and powerful being.1
The laws of science are uniform, universal, and unchanging—and thus predictable. A law of science is true whether it is applied on earth, or anywhere in space. For example, Newton’s laws of motion not only operate here on earth, but also on the moon or a star. No matter where you are in the universe, Newton’s second law of motion predicts that whenever force is applied, a predictable acceleration will ensue. Laws of science then, are universal, repeatable, predictable, subject to mathematical expression, and evidence of order in creation.
The Two Great Laws of Science
Of all the laws of science, the laws of thermodynamics, particularly the first two, are the most important. These laws can be applied to the most enormous objects in the universe or to tiny invisible particles. They hold true for matter or energy, or both. A wide variety of conditions can be applied, and the results will always be the same. These two laws of thermodynamics impact almost every branch of science. They were formally discovered around 200 years ago in the course of experiments with heat and its movement.
The word for ‘thermodynamics’ comes from the Greek words ‘therme’, meaning heat, and ‘dunamis’, referring to power or energy. Energy cannot be seen and does not have mass. You can only observe its effects. You cannot see electricity, but you can see its effect when lightning strikes the earth. There are different kinds of energy—mechanical, chemical, electrical, magnetic, nuclear, heat and light. The most amazing phenomenon found while developing the steam engine during the Industrial Revolution is that heat energy can be transformed into mechanical and other kinds of energy (nuclear energy excepted). This prompted fresh insights into how all kinds of energy can be transferred from one form to another. As investigations continued, definite predictable patterns were formed. Mathematical relationships were discovered, giving birth to the most fundamental laws of science—the Laws of Thermodynamics.
These laws were developed by brilliant scientists including Lord William Thomson Kelvin (1824–1907), a devout Christian and creationist, whose stature as a scientist rivals that of Newton. Lord Kelvin made numerous contributions to science, including many inventions. He held 21 honorary doctorates. It is no surprise that he discovered these vital universal laws, given his faith that the creation came from an infinite, loving, intelligent God.
The First Law of Thermodynamics states that the amount of energy and matter remain constant. Matter or energy may change from one form to another, but will always be conserved. Matter and energy can be neither created nor destroyed. Einstein showed that they were interconvertable by his famous E = mc². This law is called the Law of Conservation of mass/energy.
The Second Law of Thermodynamics holds that energy and matter have a universal tendency to go to disorder, a process known as increase of entropy. The universe is basically running down in every form. Organization, if left alone, becomes disorganization. Energy must be added to the system to increase order and lower entropy.
Genesis and Two Great Laws
The first two laws of thermodynamics are foundational to science because they deal with the basic stuff of the material universe—matter and energy. They apply to every living and nonliving system. The conservation of energy and matter, and the fact that a system’s energy and matter are naturally running down, have great implications.
We know from the first law that matter and energy are predictable and constant. The energy input will always equal the energy output. On the other hand, the second law of disorder means that the output of useful energy is less than the input; the rest of the energy is wasted as heat. So work is required to keep a system going. This can be disconcerting. Machines tend to run down, living systems eventually decay and die, including humans. Even the heavenly bodies are wearing away. When one steps back to evaluate these laws and their impact on the universe, the question naturally arises as to how they came to be. Just as all laws suggest a lawgiver, so the preeminent laws of thermodynamics most assuredly had to come from the hand of God. It is irrational to believe that these universal laws exist without a foundation and for no reason. There is only one intelligent alternative: God.
Genesis tells us that God completed the work of creation in six days: “Thus the heavens and the earth were finished, and all the host of them” (Genesis 2:1). All matter and energy, the earth and stars, all kinds of living creatures, including humans, were created and complete. The complete and finished work of creation indicates that all the components were in place. Nothing remained to be added or eliminated. The mass/energy could change form, but never be destroyed, as observed in the law of conservation. Whatever God created in the first week is all we have now and all we are ever going to have.
God’s curse after the Fall rested not just on man for his sin, but impacted man’s dominion over the earth. God told Adam that “cursed is the ground because of you” (Genesis 3:17). This is echoed by Paul in the New Testament, when he states that “the creation was subjected to futility,” and that “the creation itself will be set free from its bondage to corruption” (Romans 8:20-21).
I believe that the Second Law was put into effect by God at the moment of the creation of matter and energy, because it provides avenues for energy and matter to be transferred. Water evaporation, for example, follows the Second Law, because water molecules tend to become more disordered as evaporation occurs. As you can imagine, this is important in many ways. How would you wash and dry your soiled clothes, if evaporation did not occur? One of the key parts of the Second Law is the transfer of heat energy from a hot, high-energy environment to a cold, low energy environment. Life and almost all nonliving systems need heat transfer or energy movement for their existence. The simple act of walking depends on friction, which is an application of the Second Law. Digestion means the breakdown of complex molecules in food to simpler ones that the body can reconstitute, and this is yet another example of the Second Law in action.
However, when God cursed the creation, including man, He may have removed some of His sustaining influence, for the first time allowing the second law to have a destructive impact. The curse on the world and the universe has produced dramatic and catastrophic changes.
The Laws of Thermodynamics and Creation
When God made all things “in six days” (Exodus 20:11), He created the marvelous, intricately designed systems of the universe out of nothing. These complex created systems, too numerous to count, from small microscopic organisms to macrocosmic heavenly bodies, are all subject to the same universal law of decay. Where did this decay come from? Again, from a one-time event that must have had its origins outside the universe. It had to come from God.
In summary, the two laws of thermodynamics indicate the necessity of some power outside present, known processes to have originally brought it all into existence. Something outside and above the vast complex of space, time, energy, material is required to have initiated it; but free from it. That is, the laws of thermodynamics can tell us that an absolute creation is necessary.2
The laws of thermodynamics pose a serious challenge to evolution, which assumes upward movement from simple, inert particles to complex living systems over eons of time. The observed laws demonstrate the following problems for evolution. First, since, as the First Law states, natural processes cannot add new mass/energy to the universe, where did all the matter and energy come from? Second, the system tends towards disorder—not to increase in order. So why do we have such an orderly universe?
The problem faced by evolution really lies in how a complex organism could have been built from its rudimentary component parts. Small molecules had to assemble themselves into a simple cell. That cell then had to reproduce and change until combinations of cells united together to form more complex organisms, leading eventually to human beings. But the assembly of all these living systems is extremely complicated and could not have happened by itself. An outside intelligence could bring order to the system. But molecules-to-man evolution lacks a mechanism to overcome the law of decay. (As we’ll see later on, the proposed mechanism of mutation and natural selection is insufficient to reverse this tendency toward chaos.) This is a severe problem for evolution.
When You Wish Upon a Star
The origins debate is not just confined to living things but also involves the whole cosmos. Evolution, based on naturalism, seeks to entirely exclude the idea of God. It assumes naturalistic forces to explain how the stars, sun, earth, and moon came to be. Evolutionists indulge in speculation when seeking to explain stellar, galactic, planetary, and organic evolution. Of course, evolution—which attempts to explain one-time events without any empirical data to support the theory—has never been observed. All forms of cosmology are theoretical in nature, because none can be tested. Each type of evolution above has many theories proposed for it, which suggests that there is no consensus.
Heavenly bodies emit light and other radiant energies, such as radio waves, from space that can be observed across great distances. There are unimaginable distances between stellar objects. The closest star to our solar system is Alpha Centauri. It is 4.3 light years away, which is equivalent to 40.7 trillion kilometers (25.5 trillion miles), an enormous distance for a next-door neighbor. These vast distances are only multiplied when we look at our own Milky Way galaxy composed of 100 billion stars. The widest part of the Milky Way measures 120,000 light years, which is 1.1 quadrillion kilometers (696,000 trillion miles).
The vast reaches of space make the earth appear totally insignificant. The Hubble Telescope orbiting around the earth gives us ideal conditions for observing light and other radiation in space, but it still faces the problem of observable distance. The universe is composed of countless stars occupying unimaginable space. It can only be studied from a speculative, almost unrealistic position.
It is no wonder the field of cosmology has nowhere to turn but the realm of speculation. Without empirical data, it is not true science. This is exemplified by terms like ‘dark matter’ and ‘dark energy’, concepts needed, according to evolutionary cosmology, to keep things expanding and moving in the universe. The problem, however, is that they cannot be observed at present, so cosmologists are devising new instruments in hopes of finding these hidden entities. For the cosmologist, the embarrassing fact is that this unobservable and unverifiable ‘dark stuff’ comprises 95 percent of the universe. Only five percent is observable and can be accounted for. David Cline addressed this problem in Scientific American:
The Universe around us is not what it appears to be. … The motions of this visible material reveal that it is flotsam on an unseen sea of unknown material. We know little about that sea. The terms we use to describe its components, ‘dark matter’ and ‘dark energy,’ serve mainly as expressions of our ignorance.3
The same can be said of black holes. No one has observed one, but some have theorized that they are areas of high density to which all light is attracted. Over and over, employing speculation after speculation, evolutionary cosmology builds arguments based on specks of information that, in effect, displace the Creator God from His rightful place in His universe.
Big Bang or Big Bust?
The big bang is the popularized version of evolutionary cosmology. It states that matter, energy, and space were all compressed many billions of times smaller than a proton and then exploded for some undetermined reason to create an expanding universe, which continues to spread today. There are presently some 50 theories proposed by cosmologists to explain the big bang, all of which are nothing but mathematical models. Why so many theories? It is apparent that the verdict is still out.
If the big bang is true, as presented by the cosmologists, they must have scientific ground to stand on. To propose that the universe came about by a big explosion has far-reaching implications that affect every human being. For cosmic evolution to be accepted, the questions below must be answered, not just with speculative theory or creative mathematical formulations, but with hard empirical evidence.
1. What Causes Particles of Matter to Coalesce Into Heavenly Bodies?
This basic question has to be answered. If the big bang caused matter and energy to separate and move outward at tremendous speeds, at some time that matter had to coalesce and come together. The explanation offered is that as cooling occurs, particles slow down and clump together. The problem is, however, that these celestial objects are moving at relatively high speeds away from each other. There is no empirical evidence to support the star formation theory proposed by evolutionary cosmologists. No star or galaxy has ever been seen to form in space from star gas. As Harvard astrophysicist, Abraham Loeb stated, “The truth is that we don’t understand star formation at a fundamental level.”4
2. Can an Explosion Produce Order?
The Second Law of Thermodynamics, as noted above, tends to bring a system to disorder. The cosmos is not exempt from the Second Law. When one observes the universe, the Second Law is apparent everywhere. The sun is wearing down slowly; stars are burning out and even exploding. It is obvious that the Second Law of disorder is here to stay.
Big bang theory contradicts the Second Law because it requires the universe as a whole to order itself over time. Now, the Second Law does allow order to increase in one area as long as another area becomes more random. But since there are no areas outside the universe (by definition), the cosmos must become less and less ordered over time.5 To believe otherwise is much like the expectation that dropping a nuclear bomb on a mountain will yield neat piles of earth rather than utter destruction. What we see in the universe is directly opposite to the expectation of evolutionary cosmologists. We observe a decaying universe whose overall order is in decline. Evolution cosmology directly defies this great law of science.
3. What was before the Big Bang?
While some say that matter and energy are eternal and were always present, the question remains: Where did everything come from? It had to come from an outside source. How did it begin? Again, the answer is that an outside source initiated it. Everything observed has a beginning and an end. Matter and energy are no exceptions. The beginning came from an outside source: God.
4. Is expansion of the universe observable?
Red shifts—the movement of light coming from objects in space to the red end of the spectrum—are regarded as evidence for the expansion of the universe. However, there are some 50 models for the process of expansion. There is confusion and little consensus on this issue. That is not surprising. After all, one is dealing with a gigantic universe from a limited frame of reference.
There are no clear answers at this time, just creative speculation. This is illustrated by cosmology’s concept for the beginning—what has been termed the ‘cosmic egg’. Never observed, the cosmic egg idea for the origin of the universe takes the universe backwards in time and shrinks all matter down many billions of times smaller than a single proton. The idea that all matter and energy could be collected in one place staggers the imagination and, of course, has no empirical foundation. Yet, there are mathematical models that depict the precise fraction of a second when this took place. This is presented as scientific fact and needs to be challenged.
“In the beginning God”
Big bang cosmology defies the Word of God. Genesis 1:1 and Hebrews 11:3 together indicate that God created all the components of the universe from nothing. We know that the God who created the universe is the sum total of rationality and logic. The Big bang, however, denies rationality and long-held scientific principles. It does demonstrate that evolution is based on an amazingly credulous faith. The facts do not support these far-reaching claims.
All heavenly bodies came into being on the fourth day of creation, according to the Genesis account. The Hebrew word for lights, maor, means luminous lights. It was on the fourth day that the nuclear furnaces of stars began to burn, producing heat and radiating the whole universe. The first light was not from the stars; it was from God. On the first day God spoke, “‘Let there be light,’ and there was light.” (Genesis 1:3).
Light is part of the electromagnetic spectrum, which includes gamma rays, x-rays, ultraviolet, infrared, microwave, and radio waves. When the first light came into the universe, it was accompanied with these other forms. The Creator, Jesus Christ, who spoke light into existence, would later, as he walked on earth, relate light to eternal life. He said, “I am the light of the world. Whoever follows me will not walk in darkness, but will have the light of life” (John 8:12).
The billions upon billions of stars in the cosmos are a majestic display. What is the purpose of all those stars and heavenly bodies? The Scripture points out very clearly that the purpose for the creation of the stars on the fourth day was to be “for signs and for seasons, and for days and years” (Genesis 1:14). A great astronomical clock that never fails was formed by God in the heavens for us to keep order and have dominion over God’s creation.
Not only do we have a timepiece to mark seasons, days, and years, but as God stated, we have ‘a sign’ to remind us of his everlasting presence—one marked in a heavenly realm that appears endless in size and space. The cosmos is filled with the evidence of God’s glory and sovereignty. It is a sign to man to remind him of his position in time and space as he probes the heavens with sophisticated telescopes. We are simply brought to our knees knowing that there is one far greater than us who created the magnificent universe. Big bang cosmology is not science, but a belief that attempts to deny to the Creator proper recognition for His most magnificent signs in the universe.
Lift up your eyes on high and see: who created these? He who brings out their host by number, calling them all by name, by the greatness of his might, and because he is strong in power not one is missing.
1.Nancy R. Pearcey and Charles B. Thaxton, The Soul of Science, Crossway Books, Wheaton, Illinois, 1994, p. 91.
2.Douglas F. Kelly, Creation and Change, Mentor: Ross-Shire, Great Britain, 1997.
3.David Cline, “The Search for Dark Matter,” Scientific American, Vol. 288, March 2003, p. 52.
4.Abraham Loeb, as cited by Marcus Chown, Let there be Light, New Scientist, Vol. 157, February 7, 1998, p. 30.
5.Carl Wieland, World Winding Down: Understanding the ‘Law of Disorder’—And how it demands a Creator, Creation Book Publishers, Powder Springs, Georgia, 2012.