Fallacies of Evolution
The evolutionary philosophy has made a permanent mark in our American way of life. This philosophic system is based on several false assumptions. These fallacies will be exposed in this workshop. One will see the very apparent weaknesses of an irrational philosophy that is being taught at our secular educational institutions. Many evidences will be given to support origins of life and the universe from a Creation Science perspective. It will demonstrate a rational, intelligent plan and design giving man a definite purpose and place in this wonderful universe.
A. The theory of evolution is a central doctrine in secular education
Evolution is defined as slow process of upward change in which matter and energy become a living substance eventually becoming man.
Molecules to Man
1. It diminishes Human Significance
2. It defies intelligent design, plan and design.
3. It is a disguised religion
B. What is Science
1. Science is a systematic study of natural phenomena based on observations, identification, description, experimental investigation and theoretical explanation.
2. Nature of True Science
- Has integrity- is dependable, reliable and trustworthy
- Testable - can it be measured and verified
- Repeatable- should be able to duplicate
C. Two Worldviews
1. The Secularist Perspective
- The nature of science is to be able to change continuously because of the new observations brought into the picture.
- As more and more data is collected eventually conclusions can be made that do not change.
- We approach the truth this way as a dynamic process.
- Evolution dynamic generator is change over billions of years.
- Secular Philosophy is everything is in a process of dynamic change.
- The truth therefore can change.
2. The Christian Perspective
- I am created by God therefore depend upon him and subject to him for all truth.
- I submit to the fact Truth is based on the infallible word of God.
- I recognize that man is finite and he can not be equal to infinite God.
- I acknowledge that all things in creation including the gift of life come through Him and were created by and for Him.
- I am aware of my spirit being like no other creature in the Universe because I am created in God's Image.
- I can use Science and other disciplines to affirm God's awesomeness and benevolence.
- I understand Scientific thought can change because man is finite.
- I believe that God's thoughts are immutable and not subject to change.
- I can see both God's Word and his Creation demonstrating absolute truth that does not change.
D. Two Models Defined
1. Supernatural origin of all things
2. Decrease in complexity over time - extinction of species
3. Earth History is catastrophic
1. Fossil record should have in between forms
2. Should see beneficial mutations
3. Things are getting Better
4. New Species evolved
E. The Bias of Man
1. Although Science is objective it is based on presuppositions.
2. Both evolutionary and creation models use the same data.
3. Presupposition for a Creationist is that God is control.
4. Presupposition for Evolution is that Man is in control.
F. Many of the Founding Fathers of Science had creationist perspective.
Frances Bacon scientific method
Robert Boyle foundational role in chemistry
Johann Keppler motion of planets and celestial bodies
Carlus Linnaeus founded system of taxonomy /systematic Biology
Gregor Mendal founded the modern science of genetics
Isaac Newton Laws of Motion and Gravity, classical physics
Louis Pasteur Law of Biogenetics
Fallacy 1: Evolution is a Scientific Fact ?
A. Irrational Arguments
1. Evolution is promoted as an indisputable scientific fact.
"A 'theory' of evolution, which has been tested and retested, directly and indirectly, for the past 130 years, is an example. As far as scientists are concerned, it is a basic principle of Biology, just as cell 'theory'. However, our knowledge of many of details of cellular structure and function and of details of the evolutionary process is in the stage of theory, or even hypothesis.
CURTIS, HELENA and BARNES, N. SUE : Biology, Worth Publishers, Inc., New York 1989 , p 15
" Among biologists, there is almost unanimous -agreement that evolution has occurred in the past and continues to occur today. As we shall -see ....., however, the details and relative importance of the different processes involved in evolutionary change are currently the, subject of intense research and discussion among biologists."
CURTIS, HELENA and BARNES, N. SUE : Biology, Worth Publishers, Inc., New York 1989 , p 9
1. Evolution does not fit the strict definition of science. It can not be repeated or measured.
2. To observe evolution in the past is extremely difficult because of the unknown variables that may have been present in the past.
3. Science is exact - presently there is no agreement for a mechanism for evolution. A mechanism provides the answer to the very important question - how?
2. It seeks the ultimate truth through "Naturalism"
"The raw materials of science are our observations of the phenomena of the natural universe. Science-unlike art, religion, or philosophy is limited to what is observable and measurable and, in this sense, is roughly categorized as materialistic"
CURTIS, HELENA and BARNES, N. SUE:Biology, Worth Publishers, Inc., New York 1989, p 17
Comments from Philip Johnson answers this pointing out the limitations of Naturalism
"Naturalism does not explicitly deny the mere existence of God, but it does deny that a supernatural being could in any way influence natural events, such as evolution, or (communicate with natural creatures like ourselves. Scientific naturalism makes the same point by starting with the assumption that science, which studies only the natural, is our only reliable path to knowledge. A God who can never do anything that makes a difference, and of whom we can have no reliable knowledge , is of no importance to us"
JOHNSON, PHILLIP E: Darwin on Trial, InterVarsity Press, Downers Grove, Illinois 1991, p 115.
3. The hypothesis of special creation has been considered.
Science and Creationism: A View from the National Academy of Sciences 1984
" The hypothesis of special creation has, over nearly two centuries, been repeatedly and sympathetically considered on evidential grounds by qualified observers and experimentalists. In the forms given in the first two chapters of Genesis, it is now an invalidated hypothesis."
B. Evolution does not fall into experimental model.
1. It can not be tested, repeated or measured.
2. There is confusion with the term evolution.
Macroevolution states that living things over a long period of time produce new kinds of organisms. For this to happen there are major changes that have took place slowly. An example of this would be a cat will eventually change into a lion by the process of evolution.
This is contrary to the creation Model which basically states everything after its own kind.
Microevolution is defined where there are minor changes in the same species. Creationist accept this term because there are no radical changes - kind after it own kind.
C. The biggest problem with evolution is that is not science
unknown life forms
unknown reproduction methods
unknown atmospheric composition
unknown oceanic soup
unknown time and place
D. The Law of Land
1. The U.S. Supreme Court said the teaching has to be secular
2. Secular teaching denies the right to see the spiritual truth and reality
3. Man is Religious and the most popular is secular religion
4. The case of teaching creation in Florida
Fallacy 2: The Big Bang is the cause of order?
A. Can explosion cause order ?
B. The two basic laws of the universe
1. Conservation of Matter and Energy
Gen.2:1-3; Exod. 20:11; Isa.40:26 Heb.4:3,10
2. The Law of Decay-Entropy
Gen. 3:17; Ps. 102:25-27; Isa40:6-8; Rom 8:20-22
C. Understanding Death
1. Defining Entropy (transformation)
- of decreasing available energy do work.
- of disorder in a system.
- of loss information in a system
Entropy always tends to increase in any system.
2. Defining the Second Law of Thermodynamics
Second Law of Thermodynamics
Whenever a spontaneous event takes place in our universe, it is accompanied by overall increase in entropy.
Bottom line.........everything is running down in our universe.
Order => Disorder
The Second Law of Thermodynamics is in direct conflict with Evolution.
D. What does the scripture say about death
The Whole Creation Under The Curse
"For the Creation was subjected to frustration, not by its own choice , but by the will of the one who subjected it, in hope that the creation itself will be liberated from its to decay and brought into the glorious freedom of the children of God. We know that the whole creation has been groaning as in the pains of childbirth right up to the present time."
Fallacy Three: Living Things came from non-living things in the Universe
A. Two Model Approach developed by Dr. Wilder Smith, an articulate Creationist who has earned an equivalent of three Ph.D’s. in the areas surrounding Biochemistry.
Matter + Energy + Time + Chance è Life
- Chance and Randomness
- Long Period of Time
Matter + Energy + Intelligence è Life
- Creative Intelligence
- Purpose, Plan and Design
Comments: The Intelligent Design model is proposed by Creationist. It relies on outside intelligence not luck.
B. Evolutionist defy common logic by simply given enough time anything could evolve.
Example 1: The Frog becomes a Prince with long periods of time.
Example 2: Given enough time a Monkey will be able to type the 30 volume encyclopedia.
C. Experiments to create life have been basic failures.
Bottom line as more and more research is being done in this area scientist keep reaching a gigantic wall that keeps getting bigger
The Chemistry of Life is much more complex than originally perceived.
Example 1. Prehistoric Chemicals are purely hypothesized. For life to begin there is to be an absence of Oxygen. The presence of free oxygen would destroy the beginning chemistry of life. Oldest rocks found on this planet have Oxygen in the form of oxides.
Example 2. Experiments designed by Sidney Fox and Sidney Miller are said to be based on hypothetical errors and more importantly are to simplistic for living systems as we observe today.
Note: The Christian is to be involved in research. As proclaimed in Genesis 1:26 that we are to subdue His creation and He will continually make it plain to us so that we are without excuse (Romans 1:20). We will be affirmed over and over again that God’s attributes as caretaker and sustainer will be made known to us.
D. Impossible statistics to form life.
It estimated that to form life with 20 amino acids it would take 1 X 10 40,000 chances. Impossible to comprehend.
What chance did evolution have?
'The chance that the higher life forms might have emerged in this way is comparable with the chance that a "tornado sweeping through a junk yard might assemble a Boeing 747 from the materials therein".’
Sir Fred Hoyle, English Astronomer from Cambridge University
Fallacy Four: Living Things can change into new kinds given long periods of time.
James Watson an American biologist in 1950 went over to Cambridge, England to jointly work with Francis Crick, a British physicist. They would work intensely by accumulating data on DNA at the Cavendish Laboratory in England and after three years of research they would discover the foundational chemical unit of Life - DNA. Finally the mysteroius chemical structure that controls every living organism was revealed to all mankind. All life is controlled by a simple double helix structure similar to a winding staircase with stairs made by four chemical bases listed below.
DNA bases guanine (G)
The simplicity of the structure is amazing in which all life is derived from. Information is derived simply with two pairs of DNA bases. The base "A" (one side of the staircase) will always combine with T (the other side of the staircase), and conversely the C will always combine with G.
Ah T , Ch G,
The only thing changes is the order - the order predicts what the Biology is plant, frog, turtle, human etc.
Billions of base pairs make-up a DNA of human. A very small part of genetic can be illustrated below.
Ah T ,Ch G, Ah T , Gh C,Ch G, Th A, T h A, Th A, Gh C, etc.....
There is no man in the universe that could come up with this wonderful and awesome simple design for life. No chance happening. It is written in our genes that there is God so we are without excuse. The scripture refers to DNA as seed.
Read Genesis 1:11.
Some amazing properties of DNA.
- Very thin filament measuring 0.000000002 m thick (Diameter).
- DNA is a thin filament whose length would reach the sun from the earth weighing only half gram.
- In a human chromosome DNA is believed to be 3 to 4 centimeters long. In the entire human body there are 25 billion kilometers. ( The number is equivalent to the distance of 168 trips to the sun or going around the earth 625 times)
- At 1/15 the weight of a postage stamp, it contains all the DNA needed to make all 5 billion people alive today.
- The information stored in one cell of E coli is estimated to fit in 100 million pages of Encyclopedia Britannic,this would be equivalent to all the pages in largest libraries in the world estimating about ten million volumes.
1. Mutations are very rare. One mutation occurs at a rate of every ten million duplications.
God not only created a simple and powerful information system with DNA, but he also created very stable system as mentioned above. Mutations are very rare. There are 100 trillion cells in a human body so that the chances of having a couple cells with a mutated form for every gene is possible without even noticing anything.
2. Man can cause mutations with radiation. The bottom line is that mutations the organism is weakened and will never be changed into something else. Mutant fruit fly is still a fruit fly.
Sickle cell Anemia is often used as an example of a favorable mutation. This is based on the fact that red blood cells carry a sickle cell hemoglobin mutation that resists malaria. Although it resists malaria 25 % of those who have this mutant gene can still get the disease. Many have a hard time calling this beneficial mutation when those who have the disease suffer enormously with a 25 % chance of death. The sickle shape causes the hemoglobin molecule to bond to another producing an enlarged molecular structure that can not pass through the capillary walls. This condition occurs when the oxygen supply is low.
C. Mutations must have a direction to form another organism.
For an ape to become a man theoretically he must mutate only 1 % of DNA. At first you might not think this is very significant, remember the mutations have to be exactly the order of human person. It is estimated that for 1% difference only one million mutations are needed. How can one have a million mutations with each mutation in the direct order to make a human. Impossible!!!!
Example of only 5 mutations George Simpson , an ardent evolutionist estimated to get five mutations in the exact order it would take 10,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 chances Simpson concludes,".... unless there is an unknown factor tremendously increasing the chance of simultaneous mutations, such a process has played no part whatever in evolution."
Evolution believes that organisms that have very similar designs must descend from one common ancestor.
Does similarity mean we come from the same ancestry or does it mean we were created by one Creator who set out an ultimate design for the universe. All from one creator, the master designer, who knows all things and therefore chooses the ultimate design, a universal design that can be utilized with the greatest efficiency to maintain all life. It all points to one magnificent intelligent. creator.
Fallacy Five: The Fossil Record should be a testimony of evolution - it should contain many transitional forms.
A. Many of the evolutionist have felt that the fossil record is embarrassingly bare and have formed contemporary evolutionary theories that basically state species remain unchanged for long periods of time followed periods of new species being evolved rapidly. This theory is called Punctuated Equilibrium and is advocated by Niles Eldrige and Stephen J. Gould.
B. Quotes :
1. Kind after Kind - Bible
"But God giveth it a body as it hath pleased him, and to every seed his own body. All flesh is not the same flesh: but there is one kind of flesh of men, another flesh of beasts, another of fishes, and another of birds." & 1 Corinthians 15:38,39
"So God created the great creatures of the sea and every living and moving thing with which the water teems, according to their kinds, and every winged bird according to its kind. And God saw that it was good " Genesis 1:21
"And God said, ‘Let the land produce living creatures according to their kinds: livestock, creatures that move along the ground, and wild animals, each according to its kind.’ And it was so. God made the wild animals according to their kinds, the livestock according to their kinds, and all the creatures that move along the ground according to their kinds. And God saw that it was good." Genesis 1:24-25
2. The Incomplete Fossil Record
"As is now well known, most fossil species appear instantaneously in the record, persist for some millions of years virtually unchanged, only to disappear abruptly........ "
Tom Kemp, "A Fresh Look at the Fossil Record." New Scientist. vol. 108: (Dec. 5, 1985), p. 67.
"The extreme rarity of transitional forms in the fossil record persists as the trade secret of paleontology. The Evolutionary trees that adorn our textbooks have data only at the tips and nodes of their branches; the rest is inference, however reasonable, not the evidence of fossils.
The history of most fossil species includes two features in consistent with gradualism:
1. Stasis. Most species exhibit no directional change during their tenure on earth. They appear in the fossil record looking much the same as when they disappear; morphological change is usually limited and directionless.
2. Sudden Appearance. In any local area, a species does not arise gradually by the steady transformation of its ancestors; it appears all at once and "fully formed."
S.J. Gould, Natural History, 86 (5):13 (1977)
C. Extinct animals dated millions years, some just found recently, are living and doing well.
Example 1: The Chambered Nautilus
"It remains essentially the same as its ancestors of 180 million years ago.... a living link with the past." National Geographic, January 1976.
Example 2 : The praying mantis fossilized in amber is dated 40 million years.
Example 3 : The coelacanth was thought to become extinct 70 million years ago was found alive in the 1930's off the coast Madagascar.
Evolution: Historical Social Implications
1. Francis Galton the younger Cousin of Charles Darwin developed a law in 1897 that stated an individual personality was based a 1/4 of each parent and 1/16 from each grandparent.
2. Galton correlated behavior with highly intelligent would also be moral.
3. Darwin's Origin reads "On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection and Preservation of Favoured Paces in the Struggle for Life." Darwin used "race" to mean variants within the species.
4. "Juduicious marriages" of the stock human beings over " several consecutive generation’s -would produce a highly gifted race of people according to Galton.
5. Galton invented the term "eugenics" which in Greek means 'well born". His dream to of super race to control tomorrow.
6. Galton died in 1911 and received many honors including the Darwin and Wallace medal.
7. Galton had based his ideas on Evolution. He wanted to establish that we would control our destiny-our evolutionary descendents.
8. Many scholars have noted that Darwinian Biology had greatly influenced the thinking of Hitler. Werner Maser states that Hitler demonstrates this with his book the "Mein Kampf" written in 1924.
"Darwin was the general source for Hitler's notions in Biology, worship, force, and struggle, and of his rejection of moral causality in history."
9. Hitler was dedicated to Aryan super race and was directly influenced by the American publication of "The Passing of the Great Race" by the eugenicist Madison Grants first published in 1916. The Nazis extermination of six million "racial undesirables" began with quiet implication of Galton eugenics"
Notes 1 to 9 from In the Minds of Men, pp 402 –411
10. Carl Marx wanted to dedicate his Das Kaptita1 to Darwin. Marx believed that Darwin's book contained the basic View of "class struggle in History." He read this book while he was in prison December 1860.
11. Darwin's copy of Marx's first Volume inscribed by Marx-describing himself as a "sincere admirer" of the English naturalist.
12. Joseph Stalin believed solely that teaching of evolution would turn me against God.
"I'll lend you a book to read, it will show you that the world and all living things are quite different from what you imagine, and all this talk about God is sheer nonsense", Joseph Stalin said. (the Book was the Origin of Species).